Flying your drone safely and legally (new rules)
These rules aren’t in effect yet.The new rules will be in effect on June 1, 2019.
You still have to follow the current rules until then.
Continue reading upcoming rules
Take me to the current rulesThese rules aren’t in effect until June 1, 2019. Take me to the current rules.
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Drones are aircraft—which makes you a pilot. When you fly your drone, you’re sharing the skies with other drones and aircraft. Before you fly, understand the rules you must follow and review our safety tips.
On this page
Drone pilots must carry a valid drone pilot certificate and only fly drones that are marked and registered.
Respect all other lawsYou must respect all other laws when flying your drone. We encourage you to read the following documents before you fly for the first time:
We investigate reports of unsafe flying. We may involve local police if you break other laws.
Fly your drone safelyIt’s important that you fly your drone responsibly to avoid harming others. Here are the rules you need to follow.
Before you fly
PenaltiesYou could face serious penalties, including fines and/or jail time, if you break the rules.
Fines for individuals
Tips for first-time pilots
Useful terms to knowDrone and Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS)We use the term “drone” on these pages to refer to any type of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS). There are a number of different terms for this technology. In Part IX of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, we use the term Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems to align with our international partners.
Visual-line-of-sight (VLOS)Visual-line-of-sight means keeping your device in sight at all times without visual aid (for example, binoculars or video feed). This means not flying into clouds or fog, or behind trees, buildings or other (even partial) obstructions.
BystanderBystander refers to anyone that is not directly associated with operating the drone. Among others, this excludes the pilot and crew.
To move out of your rental unit you need to notify the landlord that you will be terminating the lease and moving out. The notice time and form is different from province to another in
In Ontario, the noticed is called N9 Tenant's Notice to End the Tenancy. The notice should including the following information:
The notice is not legal unless you give it to your landlord at the right time and determine your proper move out date. In Ontario, you must give the landlord 60 days notice before you move out. You have by then completed your annual or 1 year lease rent or have already switched to a month to month lease. If you have moved in a rental unit on Jan 1st and wanted to move out after 1 year of the lease is up. You need to notify your landlord by no later than Oct 30 that you will be moving out on Dec 31st.
When purchasing a property in Ontario, your lawyer may recommend that you purchase Title Insurance, instead of the traditional “lawyer’s opinion on title”. It is important that you understand what you are purchasing and what benefits there are to you as a home buyer.
Title insurance protects both residential and commercial property owners against certain losses relating to the property’s title (or ownership). You can purchase Title Insurance (through your lawyer) for a one-time fee that will cover you for the entire time you own the property.
What does Title Insurance cover?
Title Insurance protects against such things as:
What Does Title Insurance Not Cover?
When purchasing title insurance, it is important to read the policy and ask questions to be aware of the coverage that is provided. You also need to be aware of possible exclusions, which may include:
The Financial Services Commission of Ontario has created a very informative booklet outlining everything you need to know about Title Insurance. You can download a copy here from their website.
Ontario’s Fair Housing Plan has negatively affected more than just the renting market; it’s also negatively affected the process of buying and selling a property.
Longer Notice Periods and Longer Closings
If you have a client interested in buying a property, but it has a tenant, then make sure to extend the closing date because the required notice days have no doubled in length. In the past, only 30 days written notice was required to terminate a tenancy. Now it’s 60.
Another glitch: the date the tenancy ends must coincide with the end of term or rent period. This could result in a full year passing before your client can move in! For example if the tenant’s lease ends December 1, 2018, then your buyer can’t move until December 1, 2018 even if the closing date is November 1, 2017. And if you’re thinking of “fudging the dates” by giving less notice than is required, don’t! If the termination date is so much as a day off, the notice is invalid and you’ll have to start all over again.
It Costs More
Never has a landlord been required to compensate the tenant if the landlord gave proper notice and acted in good faith. No longer so. Section 48.1 of the RTA requires that the landlord compensate the tenant equal to one month’s rent. This amount has to be paid prior to the termination date specified on the N12 notice. This means a tenant can take the money and still refuse to leave!
Change Your Mind? Suffer a Big Fine!
Some realtors have encouraged investor buyers to buy a place and evict a tenant under the pretense that the buyer, or her family member, is moving in. Under the new rules, if the buyer gets caught, she can be fined up to $25,000.00. This fine can also be levied if the buyer decides to move out before twelve months are up following the date of eviction, rent it to her cousin and charge rent or demolish the place.
What to Do?
Given these rules, it’s important that you get a copy of the tenant’s lease. This way, you can gauge when your buyer can move in and how much she’ll have to pay the tenant to move out. It’s also important that you always use the updated forms found on the Landlord and Tenant Board’s website as previous forms are no longer valid.
To avoid extortion by the tenant – a practice whereby tenants demand money in order to move – make sure that
your buyer, once she becomes the landlord, files an L2 application and obtains an order terminating the tenancy pursuant to the notice prior to the termination date. Ensure that the order references the payment so that it is documented that you will be providing the tenant with proper compensation. Getting an order in place speeds up the process if the tenant refuses to move following the notice date and prevents the tenant from extorting the landlord by demanding more and more money in order to move out.
While affordability is an issue and the housing reforms attempted to solve this matter, the reforms have disproportionately hurt landlords and those who are scrimping and saving to buy a home. As such, buyer agents, as well as seller agents, must be aware of these financial and practical changes, as these changes can destroy a deal.
Investment scams usually involve getting you to put up money for a questionable investment – or one that doesn’t exist at all. In most cases, you’ll lose some or all of your money. Here are some common scams.
Common investment scams
1. Advance fee schemeIn an advance fee scheme, the victim is persuaded to pay money up front to take advantage of an offer promising significantly more in return. The catch is that the scammer takes the money and the victim never hears from them again.
Scammers often target investors who have lost money in a risky investment. They’ll contact the investor with an offer to help recover their losses. They may say they will buy or exchange the investment at a substantial profit to the investor, but the investor must first pay a “refundable” fee, deposit or taxes. If the investor sends more money, they’ll lose that, too.
2. Boiler room scamInvestment scams are often pulled off by a team of people who set up a makeshift office, called a “boiler room”. To convince you their company is real, they might send you to the company’s website, which looks very professional. They might also set up a toll-free number and a respectable address to make the company seem legitimate.
However, the company doesn’t exist. Everything on the website is fake, and the office is just a post office box or temporary office. By the time you realize you’ve lost your money, the scammer will have closed up shop and moved on to another scam.
3. Exempt securities scamWhen a company wants to sell securities in Canada, it must file a prospectus with securities regulators. Exempt securities are an exception. They may be sold without a prospectus, but they’re limited to accredited investors or certain other conditions.
On their own, exempt securities aren’t scams. But some scammers pitch fraudulent investments as “exempt” securities. Be suspicious if you get an unsolicited phone call or email about a hot tip on promising business that is about to “go public”. You may be told that the investment is only available to very wealthy people, but an exception will be made for you. You could be asked to sign some paperwork that misrepresents your income or net worth. If you have to lie about how much money you have, you are dealing with someone who breaks the rules.
How vulnerable are you to fraud?Test your skills with The Cranial Cash Clash – Scam Exam.
4. Forex scamThe foreign exchange (forex) market is considered to be the largest and most liquid financial market in the world. Investors buy and sell currencies with the aim of making money on changes in exchange rates. But trading in foreign currencies can be very risky. Forex ads promote easy access to the foreign exchange market, often through courses or software. But foreign exchange trading is dominated by large, well-resourced international banks with highly trained staff, access to leading edge technology and large trading accounts. It’s extremely difficult to consistently beat these professionals. You may not be told how risky forex trading is.
In addition, some forex trading schemes may be illegal or fraudulent. Because forex trading services are often operated online from another country, unregulated firms may be marketing their services outside of the rules. Your money may not be invested as claimed, and you may be asked to wire money into an offshore account before you begin trading, where the money will be inaccessible. In any of these situations, you’re likely to lose some or all of your money.
5. Offshore investing scamThis scam promises huge profits if you send your money “offshore” to another country. In most cases, the goal is to avoid or lower your taxes. Be skeptical of tax avoidance schemes – you could end up owing the government money in back taxes, interest and penalties.
There are other risks of offshore investing, too. If you move your money to another country and something goes wrong, you won’t necessarily be able to take your case to a civil court in Canada. It may be impossible to recover your money.
Not sure if it’s a scamScam When someone tries to make money by misleading or tricking another person.+ read full definition?Use the Scam Spotter Tool and Investment Fraud Checklist to learn how to spot the warning signs of fraud.
6. Pension scamThis scam targets people who have retirement savings in a Locked-In Retirement Account (LIRA)Locked-in retirement account (LIRA) An account that holds money moved out of a pension plan. You may use one if you are changing companies and can take your pension savings with you. It works like an RRSP, but your money is locked in. You cannot withdraw the funds until you retire.+ read full definition. In most cases, you can’t withdraw money from a LIRA until you reach a certain age, usually 55 or older. There are usually limits to how much money you can take out each year, and you’ll likely have to pay taxTax A fee the government charges on income, property, and sales. The money goes to finance government programs and other costs.+ read full definition on the money you withdraw.
The scam is often promoted in ads as a special “RRSPRRSP See Registered Retirement Savings Plan.+ read full definition loanLoan An agreement to borrow money for a set period of time. You agree to pay back the full amount, plus interest, by a set date.+ read full definition” that lets you get around the tax laws and tap into your locked-inLocked-in An account that you cannot take money out of until you retire. In most cases, you can’t get a cash payout. Your plan may make exceptions if you have a terminal illness, or a small pension benefit.+ read full definition funds. To get the loan, you must sell the investments you hold in your LIRA and use this money to buy shares of a start-up company the promoter is selling. In return, the promoter promises to loan you back 60% to 70% of the money you invested. They will keep the rest as a fee. You’re told you’ll get cash, pay no tax on it, and still hold a valuable investmentInvestment An item of value you buy to get income or to grow in value.+ read full definition in your LIRA. But the investment you buy may be worthless, and you may never see the loan. You could lose your retirement savings.
7. Ponzi or pyramid schemeThese schemes recruit people through ads and e-mails that promise everything from making big money working from home to turning $10 into $20,000 in just 6 weeks. Or, you may be given the chance to join a special group of investors who are going to get rich on a great investment. The invitation might even come from someone you know.
Investors who get into the scheme early may receive high returns fairly soon from what they think are interest cheques. They’re often so pleased that they investInvest To use money for the purpose of making more money by making an investment. Often involves risk.+ read full definition more money, or recruit friends and family as new investors.
But the investment doesn’t exist. The “interest cheques” are paid from the investors’ own money and money from new investors. Eventually, new people stop joining the scheme. There’s no more money to pay out and you don’t see another cent. That’s when the promoters will vanish, taking all the money with them.
8. Pump and dump scamIn these schemes, scammers work through lists of potential investors to promote an incredible deal on a low-priced stockStock An investment that gives you part ownership or shares in a company. Often provides voting rights in some business decisions.+ read full definition. You don’t know that the person or company contacting you also owns a large amount of this stock and the stock may not represent a legitimate business. As more and more investors buy shares, the value of the stock rises sharply. Once the price hits a peak, the scammer sells their shares and the value of the stock plummets. You’re left holding worthless stocks.
Warning4 signs of a scam:
Most investment fraudsters will make themselves out to be financial experts or someone offering a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. They will try to gain your trust before asking you for money. A fraudster may approach you online, by phone or even through a group or organization that you belong to.
Investment fraud is easier to recognize when you know what to look for. Remember these 4 red flags of investment fraud as well as these 4 ways to avoid investment scams.
If you suspect investment fraud or if you are unsure that the person or business you are dealing with is legitimate, you can contact the Ontario Securities Commission. We're here to help.
Can you tell if an investment opportunity is really just a scam? Our Scam Spotter Tool can help you learn how to spot the warning signs of investment fraud.
Visit GetSmarterAboutMoney.ca for more popular and free articles, tools and calculators to help you with your finances.
The Ontario Securities Commission's (OSC) Investor Office participated at the Toronto Police Service's Financial Crimes Unit kick-off event for Fraud Prevention Month. Investor Office Director Tyler Fleming shared tips on how people can recognize and avoid investment fraud. Visit GetSmarterAboutMoney.ca to find out how you can protect yourself against investment fraud.
It’s important to always be on guard against investment fraud, and the fraudsters looking to steal your hard-earned money.
In this issue of Investor News, we've put together tips on how you can protect yourself against investment fraud. You can also follow us on Facebook or Twitter for more investment fraud prevention tips or visit our website, GetSmarterAboutMoney.ca.